THE GAME CHANGERS FILM REVIEW

Game changers is all the hype at the moment, every day I get asked my opinion on my thoughts around the documentary so I thought best to outline my thoughts with a blog post, to provide a resource for all the confusion that is being produced.

Firstly, I am a big proponent of plant-based nutrition and I believe it should be the foundation of our diet. In the film, they presented a wide argument for why this is the case. Debunking many social beliefs around plant-based diet and performance. 

I truly believe if done right, this could have been a really good documentary. However, this film can not be referred to as a documentary. A documentary presents a balanced argument which this was not! I found it extremely dogmatic and reductive, twisting science to tell a story, that plant-based is the only way to eat….

An important caveat before getting into it, I found it interesting how they used the term plant-based which I believe is just in an effort to rebrand the dogma around veganism. I can’t blame them because it has taken a bad wrap but maybe that is for a reason….  In this article, you will see I have used both variations synonymously.

Balanced Argument?

As for a balanced argument, the first thing we must do is look at the funding and the expert’s background. Firstly it was funded by the founders of ‘Verdiant Foods’, an organic pea protein company. Who obviously benefit from people going vegan. What about the experts? All plant-based themselves which alone creates a basis

Some examples:

  • Dr. Dean Ornish: Author of several books including, “Undo It!” Which is a guide to reverse chronic disease with a plant-based diet. In addition, he hosts retreats and offers online programs for plant-based lifestyle approaches. 
  • Dr. Aaron Spitz: Author of “The Penis Book,” which highlights the importance of a plant-based diet for optimal penile function. 
  • Dr. Robert Vogel: A cardiologist and author of “The Pritikin Edge,” which focuses heavily on plant-based eating.
  • Dr. Caldwell Esselstyn: Sells books DVDs, ad programs for reversing heart disease through a plant-based diet.                               (Maeve Hanan (2019), An Evidence-based Review of ‘The Game Changers’)

Naturally, these “experts” are all for veganism which is not necessarily a bad thing. However, I would have loved to have seen both sides of the argument to create a balanced discussion vs the pushing the vegan agenda. Great news Chris Kresser M.S., L.Ac the Co-director of the California Center for Functional Medicine, founder of Kresser Institute will be on Joe Rogan Podcast to debunk this film on the 19th of November. He will no doubt discuss many of the points I am touching on here but will also have the platform to go a lot deeper so I highly recommend tuning into the podcast if you are interested.

Telling a Story through Science

Twisting science to tell a story is nothing new with so much potential financial gain to be had. It was poor science which led us into the obesity epidemic we now face. Ancel Keys an American physiologist in 1950s dubbed obesity on fat in particularly saturated fat. He did this through his famous 7 countries study that became the basis from the food pyramid and way of eating for 55yrs …. (we are still battling this today…) When it was really a 22 countries study (see image below) which he cherry-picked two markers and removed countries that didn’t fit his linear correlation…. I have written a blog around this if you want to learn more. Sadly game-changers took a leaf out of this book and created stories firstly they referenced Ancel Keys poor research, demonising saturated fat which as mentioned has been highly scrutinised on top of this they compared the average western (processed food, hamburgers etc) against a plant-based diet. Sorry but any diet is better than the standard western diet! I wouldn’t be surprised if we saw the same effect going full carnivore (meat only) for the same period of time to these studies (Not saying this is a good thing either, just making a point). The negative impact of the standard western diet has been well documented and evidence is clear all you need to do is look at the obesity epidemic, obviously, nutrition is not the only factor but definitely one of the leading contributors.

Vitamin C

Another unbelievable moment for me was when a scientist states that plants are higher in Vitamin C and since our bodies can’t make Vitamin C we should only eat plants. I am not arguing that vitamin C comes from plants and I don’t think any other dietary approach would either (besides maybe carnivore…). But why is it we have to function in extreme measures of all or nothing (Plant vs. Meat)? Why can we not eat a balanced diet of plants and meat, we are omnivores after all…

One Diet Fits All

They state in the film that the plant-based diet is the one diet for everything …Sadly, there is no such thing as a one diet fits all we each possess so much diversity that what works for one person will not work for the next. Nutrition like most things needs to be individualised. There are some guiding principles that will apply to the majority but there are always exceptions to the rule and to ignore this is just foolish. 

Anecdotal Evidence

The film does a great job at highlighting a handful of vegan athletes. Their anecdotal stories are fascinating but again like mentioned earlier there are always outliers… I am not saying that these athletes are but with very little to work off besides anecdotal evidence, it is difficult to determine.  We must always approach anecdotal evidence with a grain of salt before we take it as the gospel. For example, when someone goes through a dietary change it often acts as what we call a keystone habit which promotes cascading of other positive habits to follow such as mindset shift, lifestyle changes (Prioritise sleep, implement stress management strategies etc), a greater focus on training and integration of new training methods etc. Besides the habit change and controllable factors are they genetic outliers? Plus just because they are seeing performance gains short term what is it doing to their overall life and healthspan? Once again I am not saying that plant-based couldn’t have achieved these results but a pinch of scepticism is always good when digesting anecdotal evidence, it is important to look at all the evidence such as what the science tells us. Let’s touch on a bit more science then 😉

Amino Acids: Meat Vs Plants

I would be remiss if I did discuss the amino acids argument. Firstly, as defined by the FDA, a complete protein contains all of the essential amino acids in adequate amounts. Incomplete proteins do not have sufficient amounts of one or more of the essential amino acids[*]. Or, they’re missing amino acids altogether.

Animal protein sources consist of all the essential amino acids and quantities our body requires. Whereas plant proteins do not contain some essential amino acids with the exception of soy. Plants are especially low in the essential amino acid leucine compared to animal-based proteins. Leucine is well known for being a trigger for muscle protein synthesis (eg. muscle growth). To attain adequate protein then you’ll have to combine plants to get a complete protein. This is fine in theory however how much beans and rice do you need to eat to make the amount of complete protein that is present in a piece of chicken? A great example of this in the film was when they stated a peanut butter sandwich has the equivalent protein as 3oz beef or three egg. I love my nut butters as much as the next person, probably more but to achieve the same protein level you would need 5 tablespoons of peanut butter, for a total of 500 calories! (Not including the bread). Regardless, of the massive calorie intake of ¼ cup of Peanut Butter, it is a bit overkill for one sandwich.

Just like everything, it is not just about quantity but quality, this is no difference for protein. Quality of amino acid is characterized by the composition and digestibility. On average, animal-based protein is digested at a 90% or higher rate, while plant protein ranges anywhere from 55% to 80%.

Why? Plant proteins less digestible because of the “anti-nutritional” factors (trypsin inhibitors, hemagglutinins, phytates, etc). The good news for vegans is that cooking techniques like soaking, boiling, steaming, and fermentation have been shown to reduce the content of these anti-nutrients. It doesn’t solve the problem but does help with protein uptake. Another great option especially if an athlete as you need more protein, you should also consider plant-based protein powders (Hemp & Pea) as these are stripped of the anti-nutrients and allow for the uptake of the protein. 

Summary; With Plant proteins offering less digestibility vegans will often have to consume more calories to attain the same quantity of protein, like the peanut butter sandwich mentioned above.

Blood Testing 

The blood tests following meal really spiked my interest so naturally, I looked into what it all meant, was the “cloudy serum” a bad thing?

The cloudy effect seen in the blood is called postprandial lipemia. It is physiologically normal to see a rise in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in the blood post-consumption of dietary fat and if a concern which it shouldn’t be for most, it is simply mitigated by movement and fasted windows. If we tested all these athletes fasted, their serum would all look identical. 

So really just a quick and easy way to fear-monger and scare you to confine to their story.

 

Cholesterol, Blood Pressure, BMI

How about the firefighters who lowered their cholesterol, blood pressure, BMI, etc from going vegan. Do you truly believe they had to go full plant-based, for these effects? No, because at the end of the day you will be healthier with a well-balanced diet with some meat consumption as long as it of high-quality source and not processed.

Vegan Paradigm

This is not related to the movie as such but I think an important consideration to include because no doubt some people will try the plant-based diet. In fact, many I know have already begun as a result. 

When on a new diet especially a restricting diet you will often see profound benefits early on, it is what I like to call the vegan paradigm. You change your diet and full of motivation you kick all the ‘bad foods’ and receive a massive influx of new nutrients which your body thanks you for as it is not used to getting them so you feel amazing as a result. Plus due to the limited nature of the diet, you naturally stay clear of all the junk food you used to eat so, of course, you see great results. This is the foundation of most diets but especially important for the vegan diet because if not a well thought out and structured, you will begin to lose key micronutrients B12, Omega 3, Iron etc that just can’t be attained in adequate quantities through the vegan diet. Yup, I said it, to do a vegan diet successfully you most likely need to supplement to get adequate nutrients that can’t be attained through you diet which to me begs the question, is this the way we are designed to eat? However, back to vegan paradigm, early on in the diet our bodies are great and compensating for this but over time this takes its toll and roughly 1-3yrs down the track of being vegan they begin to see a significant decline in their health and because they felt so great early on they don’t correlate it with the vegan diet, it must be something else? So often get more strict on the diet and really begin to spiral down.

Game Changers Take Home Message

Finally, thankfully they took a step back with their take-home message which was not to go full vegan but aim to reduce meat intake which I can absolutely get behind. Not that meat is bad but if you have a few meat-free meals of meat-free day (meat-free Mondays is a common approach) you will be forced into increasing the diversity of your diet which is a great thing for attaining more nutrients in your diet and improving your overall health.

My Summary of the Film

Although extremely dogmatic and reductive, it championed vegetables which is not a bad thing! We should all eat more vegetables and great diversity of vegetables. What really frustrated me is the way they approach it, saying it is the only way to eat and then backing their story with poor science and anecdotal evidence, not a balanced argument at all. One thing that really infuriates me around films like this, is they push the extremist narrative we must be all or nothing (Meat vs Vegetables) when instead we should eat both we are omnivores after all. I am all about championing the vegetables a reducing overall meat intake but there is no need to be so extreme. There are exceptions to this of course as discussed but let’s bring some common sense back into the nutrition game!

When Everything Changes in Seconds: Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) + Initial Recovery

One decision, one slip in judgment and everything can change in seconds….

I want to use this post to discuss my accident along with the initial protocol I implemented as a result. My goal is to show those that have suffered you are not alone and for those who may suffer in the future hopefully offer some hope and guidance that there is a lot you can do to help. However, it is important to not get caught up stressing around doing everything but to do what you can because at the end of the day the most important thing is to be stress-free and rest and remember we are all different

Why Bintan 70.3 Ironman?

At the beginning of this year, I set two pretty ambitious goals, targeting World Championship qualification in both Half and full distance Ironman, something I previously never perceived as possible.

In my pursuit to attain an early qualification for 2020 Taupo 70.3 World Championships, I flew over to Bintan, Indonesia to race a Half Ironman. Everything was going perfectly to plan with a solid swim and on target for an awesome bike on a very challenging technical & hilly course, I was racing my perfect race, feeling great with everything going to plan, in fact, if I kept tracking as I was I would have won my Age Group (I needed a podium to guarantee my qualification spot) and also came in the top 5 overall. However, this was not meant to be as at the 75km mark of the bike everything went blank….

I couldn’t tell you what happened first hand because I have no recollection but from what I was told, I came flying around the corner towards two speed bumps, the first I bunny hopped and then hit the second of the two with my front wheel off-centre (according to my Garmin Computer at 42kms) sending me flying over my handlebars headfirst into a curb, with my right side taking most the impact/ road rash but I must have rolled as well because I was cut up on my left as well. I am not sure how long I was out for but I don’t recall anything from my time at the crash site but apparently, I was repeatedly asking the same questions over and over “what happened??” “Is my bike ok??” Once told I would ask the same question straight away again. Not surprisingly the volunteer that was helping me knew I was not in a good place so he called in the doctor to assess me, you would think at this point my race was over but the doctor said if I want to keep going I can and those who know me I am extremely stubborn and a sucker for a challenge so there was no choice in my head (not that it was working anyway) I assume, this is when I jumped straight back on my bike and went on autopilot. This is the part that really scares me because I still have no memory of any of this, I am not sure why the doctor let me go, maybe it was because I was being difficult wanting to jump back on my bike and not listening (I wouldn’t be surprised, I put a lot into the prep of this race) but he should have never given me the option in the state I was in, he should have pulled me from the race. The volunteer that helped me at the time of the accident found me after the race and filled me on all of this he couldn’t believe the doctor let me back on the bike, he also could believe I had finished the whole race.

With no one stopping me there was no way I wasn’t getting back on my bike. Dazed and confused it wasn’t until after the race I looked back to my Garmin Computer for answers and they truly shocked me! Turns out I spent 17mins at the crash site…… No clue how much of that I was unconscious or what was going on and then back onto the bike on autopilot with 15kms left of the 90km bike course. Still with no memory of this, I wonder what was going through my mind because this was quite possibly the stupidest thing I could have ever done, not just because I was back on the bike but the speeds I was going with an extremely beaten up mind, body and bike (Bike had $3700 worth of damage….). My Garmin once again highlighted my stupidity although overall last 15km was slower than it would have been it showed multiple times where I exceeded 60km/hr and if you know anything about concussions the absolute worst thing you can do is have another in close concession… Even within up to 3 weeks. Thankfully I survived this very silly decision.

In to transition and onto the 21km run, this is where I somewhat came to. Dazed and confused and with no memory of losing 17min at the crash site or my slow last 15km, I did my best to keep my mind on what I came here for a podium finish to qualify. Again not a smart move in hot humid 35-38 degree conditions and with a whole host of injuries and road rash that I never took the time to assess my situation. It didn’t take long until I turned my Garmin off the speed setting because I wasn’t even close to my target pace and I just focused on getting to finish as fast as possible. This was not easy as I had also pulled my right calf in the crash so I felt each and every step.

Long story short, I got through the hottest run of my life (thank god for all the sponges) and pretty much collapsed across the line and mumbled the words “medical, I need medical” I was in an absolute state, I could no longer stand and had to be helped and lost all control of my body (even my bladder….) even sitting wasn’t possible. I spent the next 3-4hrs or so getting checked and monitored in the medical tent trying to figure out the extent of everything.

Everything seemed to come somewhat better and was I able to hold a conversation but it wasn’t until I got back to my accommodation (maybe due to all the movement?) things really hit me and went downhill. Travelling alone this can be scary but thankfully I was surrounded by a really nice Italian man, who had also raced and some really helpful resort staff. Although none of their English was great I managed to get my message across (google translate was our best friend). I got them to monitor me every couple of hours and then made the decision if I was not better by 9 pm I would go to the hospital. Reluctant as being on isolated island I can’t imagine they had assessment tools like MRI that I would need to assess a brain bleed etc. Thankfully by 9 pm I felt slightly better and decided to stay and rest.

I used my high pain threshold to my advantage and endured the pain and passed on any medication offered (I got some pretty confused/weird looks saying no). Why would I refuse? TBI on their own result in extreme gut damage so I didn’t want to cause further damage by adding them to the mix. Plus I would rather be conscious/mindful of the pain to ensure I can truly assess my symptoms and ensure I am not doing anything to aggravate them.  I am not saying you have to say no to drugs if needed, this is just my personal choice as I like to be in tune with what my system is telling me not masking it. If you do choose to take drugs you do need to be careful especially if there is any chance of a brain bleed as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) will increase the bleeding so try your best to stay clear and stick to traditional painkillers eg paracetamol.

I was lucky I didn’t have to leave until the day after the race and my Italian friend broke down and packed my bike for me because there is no way I could even fathom doing that. I spent the rest of my time taking things very slowly which wasn’t too hard as I couldn’t walk after pulling my calf and running a half marathon on it, you could say it was not too happy so walking was very slow with a massive limp. The upside I was thankful to be in paradise, so just chilled and got straight onto my rehabilitation.

Initial treatment

This is the part where I want to share what I did initially to support my TBI and hopefully can help as a resource for others struggling or know someone struggling.

Obviously, on an Island, I had very limited access to support or interventions but luckily I always travel with supplements for optimal health and performance which in this case I was lucky as some of them are also the first line of call for brain health and repair.

Below is a list of the things I implement with dosages and why they were applied, to provide you with a greater understanding. You may note some of these are a little higher than recommended doses so please check with medical professional first. Obviously I had to work with what I had in an isolated location, in the future I will endeavour to provide a detailed protocol of what I would do in an ideal world but for now, here is what I implemented:

Sleep/ Rest:

Why: When it comes to TBI nothing comes close to rest so that became my primary focus. I have an Oura Ring which is one of the leading personal sleep trackers so this was great for me to monitor and assess my sleep. Although sleep is the best thing for a TBI, poor sleep is also often associated in particular REM sleep can be affected. I designed my day around maximise my sleep. Priming the circadian rhythm with early morning

Dose: I aimed for more sleep than normal targeting 9-10hrs. However, I did not always get that

Daily Routines:
Morning:

  • Meditate: to relax the mind
  • Sun Exposure (no sunglasses with as much skin as exposed as possible)
  • Grounding (bare feet),
  • Movement (or should I say limping…)

Day:

  • Napping: As required but no later than 3 pm as I didn’t want to impact my sleep during the night

Evening: Focused on winding down early

  • Early Dinner
  • Blue-blocking Glasses (which were also godsent when over stimulated throughout the day)
  • Meditate: to relax the mind

Meditation:

As mentioned above

Why: Not only is mediation powerful for cultivating a positive perspective but it is great for unloading the exhausted mind. I ensured I had a solid foundation of daily meditation (morning and night) and whenever I overloaded the system and felt symptoms worsening I would take a step back and meditate and straight away fell a release in the pressure within my head.

Dose: 10-20min Morning and night and when needed throughout the day

Exogenous Keytone Salts
Brand: Pruvit

Why: Quite possibly the most important thing I could take early on. Keytones are known to be the most efficient clean fuel for the brain and they can provide up to 70% of the brains energy. Even more importantly a TBI resembles Alzheimer’s disease (AD) as they both present with a reduced ability to utilise glucose for energy. With the reduced capacity to utilise glucose (carbohydrate) for energy, ketones are even more vital in supplying the brain fuel.

Dose: 1 Max Packet per day (half in the morning and the other half in the afternoon)
To increase ketones in the body across the day

DHA (Docosahexaenoic Acid)
Brand: BePure Three

A high strength DHA/EPA Omega 3 Fish oil with Vitamin D and natural vitamins A and E.
Why: DHA is recognized as an essential nutrient for the proper development and function of the brain. In a number of TBI animal trials have shown an improvement in cognitive function, reduction in nerve swelling, stabilisation of cellular energy production and increase nerve repair with the supplementation of DHA & Omega3.

Dose: 2 capsules Morning and Evening

Probiotic
Brand: BePure

Why: Probiotics offer a health benefit to brain function and promote the diversity of gut microbiota.
TBI has shown to greatly impact the gut-brain axis. The communication pathway that has lead to the gut being known as the second brain. TBI results in increased colon permeability, leaving individuals 12 times more likely to die from blood poisoning which is often caused by bacteria, and 2.5 times more likely to die of a digestive system problem, compared with those without such injury. However, a good probiotic can mitigate these effects and help in assisting the healing of the gut.

Dose: 2 capsules Morning and Evening

Antioxidant:
Brand: Viberi Powder

Why: Following a TBI there is a significant increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS). It is the ROS which causes the cascading of events and the primary stress to the brain following a TBI. Antioxidants are important early on as they can fight the increase ROS, reducing the load on the brain allowing it to heal.

Dose: 1 sachet/day (However sadly ran out over there so split them over a few days)

Magnesium
Brand: Bepure

Why: Depletion of magnesium is observed in the animal brain and in human blood after TBI. Magnesium is critical in restoring brain plasticity and for improving cognitive function. Researchers showed that with magnesium supplementation they could reverse brain ageing by as much as nine to 14 years. Anything that helps the health of the brain long term can be assumed is helping in the short term acute situation like a TBI. Not only this but magnesium is great in regulating inflammation along with assisting in sleep which can be challenging when suffering from a TBI

Dose: 2 capsules Morning and Evening

Diet: Fasting + Whole Food Antioxidant-Rich Diet

Why: Fasting: Purpose of fasting is to naturally increase levels of ketones in the body, reduce inflammation and along with providing the gut a period to heal and repair following the onslaught of racing and the TBI. However, important to note I was not strict, I did not want to place any unneeded additional stress on my system so when hungry I would eat.

Outside of the fasting, I tried to limit carbohydrates as much as possible and a trend towards a more keto approach. Although this turned out to be challenging to do due to limited food choices over in Asia. Interestingly, I did find myself craving carbohydrates more, I am not sure if this was due to having more than normal or if my body was requiring them so I would listen to the body and not restrict when craving carbohydrates.

Aside from the fasting and minimising carbohydrate where possible I aimed to eat a diverse wholefood rich diet. With a special focus on getting in vibrant colourful foods as vibrant colours are closely associated with nutrients and antioxidant properties. Also in a new country presented a great opportunity to try new foods and develop a bit more of a diverse microbiome.

Does: Length of Fasting is dependant on your ability and adaptation to do so. The key thing to keep in mind is you need to listen to the body. I can happily do 16-18hrs but this is never a target! I just listen to what the body was telling me and adjust accordingly.

Activity:

Walking: Broken and chronically exhausted I couldn’t do much but walk/limp so I took it easy and stayed well within my limits and walked as much as possible and gradually increase easy day.

Why: Movement is phenomenal for recovery as long as you stay within limits as it increases blood flow, Neurotransmitters, (the chemicals in your brain that transmit messages between neurons) and activates neuroplasticity (the brain’s ability to rewire and repair itself after brain injury)

Dose: Every morning and as much as my mind/body would allow throughout the without aggravating symptoms. Gradually increasing each day as my body/mind allowed. For me mornings where best by the afternoon-evening I was exhausted and just rested

Two days post Crash: Bintan to Singapore

 

Then Tuesday rolled around and it was time to leave and catch the ferry back to Singapore and straight to the airport to fly home. Still waiting to hear back from my travel insurance I slowly and painfully got myself to the airport. While waiting to check-in, they finally got back to me and told me to get straight in a taxi to the hospital to be cleared before catching my flight home. At the time, however, this just seemed like too much! I just wanted to get home even as much as I was dreading the flight. However, after talking to my mum, as I was in no state to make a decision she made me realise they were right, you only get one brain and I have worked hard on mine so just not worth the risk. I thought I would only have to stay one night but the insurance company still wouldn’t let me fly so I ended up staying for another 4days in Singapore going back and forth from the hospital for assessments, scans and then for my road rash which became infected. In this time I persisted with my protocol as listed above the best I could.

When it comes to assessment for concussion there is not much they can do in the way of identifying the extent of damage, all an MRI can do is look for a brain bleed which would be a worst-case scenario. Thankfully I was cleared to fly home which by this time I had exhausted my supply of supplements so I was keen to get home to get back on to them to regenerate my brain.

Home:

Finally back home with access to all the resources I need and touched base with a couple of friends of mine a special mention to Cliff Harvey who was really helpful to bounce some ideas and get his thoughts and advice. Especially with a foggy mind, this was extremely helpful as reading literature wasn’t really possible at this time. I then distilled what I knew and what Cliff and others had suggested into a protocol. In my next post, I will discuss what I have implemented in the month or so since coming home.

Hit the Reset Button: Tricks & Tips for the Holiday Season

The silly season is among us! With the extra time, it is the perfect opportunity to take the time to focus on your health and wellbeing.

Let’s not sweat the small stuff, indulge a little and relax – you all have earned it! Enjoy.

The holiday period also presents as a great opportunity capitalises on extra free time to develop key positive habits that can help set you up for an awesome 2019. In this post, you will find our top tips to focus on this holiday period to help reset yourself for a big 2019.

 

1. Hack your Sleep:

The holidays present a great to focus on establishing the habits and getting the restorative sleep you desire.

Top Sleep Hack:

  1. Design your own Sleep Sanctuary
  2. Ditch Technology
  3. Black it Out
  4. Airflow
  5. Plants
  6. Quality Mattress & Pillow
  7. Most of all, develop a routine and keep it consistent!

Learn More

2. Remove Toxins & Stimulants

The holiday season is a great opportunity to clear out all the unneeded toxins and stimulants from your life.

  • Plastic

Reduce your use of plastics as much as possible. The plastic leaches chemicals like pcb’s dioxins which are xeno-estrogenic and mimic estrogen in your body. This creates an estrogen dominance which develops an insulin resistance, making it extremely difficult to regulate and reduce fat.

Remove Plastic:

  • Ditch the plastic drink bottles: Replace with a metal bottle
  • Rethink Tupperware: The last thing you want to do is put hot food into a plastic container (or worse – to reheat it!). Replace with glass or bamboo.
  • Plastic Straws: Replace with metal or bamboo

 

Coffee is the greatest source of Polyphenols (Antioxidants) in the western diet! It is also well known that us Kiwis love our coffee per capita consumption ranks among the top 20 in the world, according to the statistics portal, Statista.com.

Can there be too much of a good thing? If you have become reliant on it and can’t survive a day without it. It is time for a detox! With no deadlines or time constraints with work, this is the perfect time for a detox! Remove caffeine from your life for 2 weeks to allow your body to reset.

Removing the stimulant for two weeks is extremely powerful as when reintroduced, you will once again notice the stimulant effects again, that have most likely been stunted due to overuse.

Quick note: If you currently exceed 3 coffees a day I wouldn’t suggest going cold turkey unless you are that way inclined. Gradually cut down!

Learn More

 

Light is a nutrient that plays a significant role in signalling your mitochondria (cellular powerhouses) to do things and when to do them. Different light frequencies trigger different signals in your cells. Blue light which mostly comes from LED lights places the body under a significant amount of stress.

Newer artificial light bulbs lack many of the sun’s frequencies that our bodies and brains need. Artificial lights, have eliminated most of the infrared, red, and violet light found in natural sunlight, and are amplifying the blue light beyond anything we have evolved to handle. Most LEDs and compact fluorescents emit about 5 times the blue light we’re used to.

Where to start:

Reduce blue light or what is now known as Junk light. Download a blue-light filter app like F.LUX for digital devices (Mobile & laptop) and switch all the lights in your house to halogen and incandescent. They aren’t perfect, but they’re better. Your white LEDs might be saving your power bill but they are sapping your personal energy levels!

Learn More

3. Hydrate

Too often we forget the simple things like hydration. Yet, hydration levels are one of the most important things to regulate.  Water contributes to the maintenance of normal physical functioning, cognitive functioning and thermoregulation. Our body is made up of 60% water, so it is important that you achieve optimal water levels as it is essential for feeling good with optimal health and energy. With 1% of dehydration affects performance by up to 10%!

How much water should I drink?

0.033 litres per kg of body weight, which roughly equates to the following amounts:

  • 60 kg = 2 litres
  • 75 kg = 2.5 litres
  • 90 kg= 3 litres

Hydration Tips:

  • Carry a metal drink bottle with you everywhere.
  • Download Hydration app, to remind you to drink

 

4. Mindfulness

Slow Down: Too often while on holiday I see people stuck in the busy mode unable to slow down. On a mission racing around from place to place and not taking the time to relax and enjoy the present moment. It is easy to get stuck in old patterns but we need to be able to detach ourselves from these habits. I have caught myself in this very situation myself many times. This where it is great to include a mindfulness practice.

Mindfulness Definition: A mental state achieved by focusing one’s awareness on the present moment, while calmly acknowledging and accepting one’s feelings, thoughts, and bodily sensations.

Mindfulness is all about detaching yourself from the past and the future and focusing on the present moment, as it is only the present moment that you can impact. The holiday period presents as a great opportunity to increase or introduce a mindfulness practice.

Where to start?

  • Download an amazing app like Headspace, that will help guide your mindfulness practice. The great thing about Headspace is its flexible nature, that allows you to design a practice around your needs such a length of session and specific focus points.
  • Walk slowly, sounds simple but can be especially tough for busy people to do.
  • Sit down and enjoy scenery eg. beach, park.

Learn More

5. Look after your Gut!

Our gut is now known as our second brain so it makes sense to look after it! Did you no 90% of your serotonin (feel-good hormone) is created in your gut. That means poor gut health can lead to depression.

A great way to start your day is with a lemon juice/apple cider vinegar to help stimulate digestion through stomach acid and bile production.

  • 1 tbsp. Apple Cider Vinegar (it has to be raw, unfiltered, with the mother)
  • Juice from 1 lemon
  • Pinch of Pink Himalayan Salt (antioxidant/electrolyte)
  • 1 Cup of warm water (Make it as a tea)

Aim to drink 30mins prior to breakfast for best results.

Why not throw in some bitter and fermented foods to aid digestive support this summer too.

Popular recommendations include: 


 

Bitter:

  • Turmeric, (turmeric lattes)
  • Cacao
  • Ginger
  • Good quality Organic sourced dark chocolate
  • Leafy greens like Spinach and Kale.

 

 

Fermented:

  • Kombucha
  • Kefir
  • Natto
  • Sauerkraut
  • Pickles

 

 

6. Gratitude

The benefits of practising gratitude are nearly endless. By taking the time to notice and reflect on what you are thankful for, you experience more positive emotions, feel more alive, sleep better, express more compassion and kindness, and even have stronger immune systems.

A great way to cultivate this practice is a Gratitude Journaling. Journaling works as it slowly changes the way we perceive situations by adjusting what we focus on. Shifting our focus away from the negatives and onto the positives. Journaling can be as simple as writing 3 things you are grateful each day.

7. Fear Setting

With the new year brings new year’s resolutions. University of Scranton research suggests that just 8% of people achieve their New Year’s goals. Let’s not fall into this trap! This year instead of new year’s resolutions replace them with ‘Fear Setting’ (An exercise recently popularized by Tim Ferriss)

Fear setting is all about embracing your fears! A simple process in which you write down and quantify your fears. What is the worst-case scenario? (often it is not as bad as you think). Once identified work back from that scenario, how can you mitigate these consequences and then how could you recover from this scenario. You will be surprised how powerful this technique can be.

Follow these 3 steps to fear-setting:

Do an 80/20 analysis:

  • “Which 20% of sources are causing 80% of my problems and unhappiness?”
  • “Which 20% of sources are resulting in 80% of my desired outcomes and happiness?”
  • “Which 20% of sources are consuming 80% of my time?”

Write a to-do and not-to-do list:

  • “Why haven’t I done my most important to-do?”
  • “Why haven’t I stopped doing my most important not-to-do?”

Define your fears clearly (Once identified ask yourself this series of questions):

  • What is the worst-case scenario if I did what I’m considering?
  • What are all the things I could do to minimize that from happening?
  • If the worst-case scenario happened, what steps could I take to minimise repair the damage

Learn More

Most of All:

Have an amazing break, take the time to relax, unwind and get some quality time outdoors in the sun! Merry Christmas & Happy New Year from the Taylored team

Re-United with My Sugar Addiction…..

Post-Holiday Addiction

I think we have all faced this at one time or another, you visit an amazing place with phenomenal food and you trying everything insite because, hey you’re on holiday.

Many of you will know I have just come back from Melbourne and to those that have been to Melbourne, you will know that is world renowned for amazing food. As a massive foodie, it is fair to say I went a little overboard…. But no regrets because that is what holidays are for, expanding your horizons to new things, just sometimes that also means expanding your waistline at the same time. There is nothing wrong with this and I think we should all live and experience life but I have noted since coming home the true danger lies in coming home reunited with my old friend my sugar addiction. As I have stated in many of my previous articles this is powerful as a cocaine addiction, as it reacts in the similar fashion in the brain.

In realising the trap for myself I quickly realised that I will not be alone in this struggle, so why not share the strategies I will implement to get myself back on track. This document is for anyone looking to cut sugar, it doesn’t matter if you have been on holiday or not, just coming out of winter can be hard enough, as we tend to drift towards comfort foods

Cold Turkey

Just like any addiction moderation is not a good idea as “just a little bit” ends up as a “big bit” or “another bit”

Time to be strict, no more sugar for me for at least two weeks, so goodbye to my beloved chocolate, although I eat 90% dark chocolate it does still have a small amount, so that will have to go as well.

Two weeks strict no leniency and following this I will reassess and most likely be more liberal with good quality sources eg my dark chocolate (90%). The key focus is to break the habits of snacking.

 

I’m going, Keto

Those who follow me know that I am an advocate for keto when done appropriately for the right person, I have written extensively on it

I traditionally cycle in and out of keto depending on my training and racing schedule, but it looks like it is time for another solid cycle of Keto, especially with race season around the corner now.

Keto is one of the quickest ways to kick the cravings to a curb. However, it is always harder going into with re-established sugar cravings. The induction period can be tough as for any detox you are removing an addictive stimulant that you currently rely on. Your body doesn’t know what hit it, naturally, you begin to crave those foods more and begin making elaborate explanations and justifications to why you “need sugar” or “This is a good source of sugar” All this does is draw out the induction period. If this sounds like you and something you have tried and failed with before, the next couple of steps may also be challenging for the same reasons but don’t worry we have a solution for you! Check out the Exogenous Ketone section.

There is no one fits all approach

Not everyone needs to go full keto, high fat low carbohydrate (HFLC) will be sufficient and keto maybe to extreme for many. You need to keep in mind my baseline of carbohydrate intake was previously very low and I know I personally function best in this state with my performance goals. Everyone will function off varying amounts of carbohydrate. It is what Cliff Harvey calls “carbohydrate appropriate” so don’t feel like you need to go all or nothing. I would personally suggest starting HFLC and see how you go, re-assess and decide if you want to take it a step further to keto.

 

No Snacking

While on holiday it is easy to snack and graze on food throughout the day. Although our bodies are not designed to graze, this places a greater demand on our digestive system which in turn our body neglects other key processors.

Back from holiday is a great time to establish my new routine so no more snacking instead focus on 2-3 key nourishing meals.

 

Intermittent Fasting

For those like me who like to take it a step further beyond restricting carbohydrate and snacking and want optimal benefits. Intermittent fasting should definitely be considered as it provides your digestive system a greater opportunity to rest placing less unneeded external stress on your system

There are wide-ranging fasting protocols, that you can select from and to learn more read my previous posts but I think the key to any of the protocols that is often missed is that you should never suffer! Fasting is not about starving yourself it is about listening to your body and eating when hungry. As you become less reliant on carbohydrate for fuel and your body shifts over to primarily utilising your fat stores, as this happens you will naturally be able to fast for longer, but you should never push this adaptation phase, listen to your body and gradually increase your fasted window.

 

This is too hard! I Need a Helping Hand

If you are struggling with the above steps and you need a helping hand or just want to stay feeling amazing, look no further than Exogenous ketones.

Exogenous Ketones

Cravings and hunger catch us all off guard at one point or another but what if you could remove these while putting yourself into a fat burning zone (ketosis) while increasing mental capacity and clarity.

Sound good?

Exogenous ketones are the answer with an extensive list of benefits they are phenomenal from a performance standpoint but also a sugar addicts best friend as they detox the sugar. They are my specialist trick and often refer to them as the “catalyst for ketosis”. There is nothing as powerful in getting you through the tough times of induction period of keto or kicking the sugar addiction. Firstly because they taste amazing (even sweet) but because they remove hunger, craving and keep you performing at your best. Plus they are high in electrolytes which keeps the dreadful keto flu at bay.  

 

Out of Site out of Mind

When struggling with willpower which you most likely will early on, hide your treats. For some, this is not enough so I suggest giving them away or throwing them out so that your house is clean with no treats.

Accountability

Get friends, family, flatmates onboard. Let them know your plan and why you are doing it, ask them to keep you honest and on track, because let’s be honest we can justify anything, at least this way you will get an unbiased accountability.

Brush your Teeth

Danger time for me is following dinner, normally when I reach for the dark chocolate or go for seconds and then thirds when I am not even hungry. Brushing your teeth straight after dinner is a great way to stop yourself from eating

Join in the Journey: Stay Tuned

Join me as I re-undergo this induction phase and ditch the sugar and carbohydrate. I have my exogenous ketones ready to go and looking forward to being addiction free and back full of energy with no spike or crashes.

 

Keto: Everything You Need to Know

The Ketogenic protocol or more commonly known as Keto is growing in popularity and no doubt you have heard about it, but are probably wondering what it is and why is there so much hype around it?

There is often a lot of confusion around what is keto and if it is right for particular individuals. It is important to remember everyone has different needs and requirements and the keto diet is not a panacea! However, for those that it is beneficial for, it has shown to have some profound effects, especially in aiding in chronic health conditions.

From High Fat Low Carbohydrate (HFLC), Paleo to Keto and everything in between there is some great confusion around the differences between them and what they are and what is the best approach. It becomes easy to get confused as within each approach (HFLC, Paleo & Keto) there is multiple sub-approaches to the protocols. For example, someplace greater or less focus on greens or proteins than others. It is no wonder everyone is lost and not sure where to start. My goal with this article is to cut through all this and simplify a very overcomplicated topic to arm you with the knowledge to make the best decision for your individual needs.

Let’s first define each of the key protocols, their history, philosophy and approach to nutrition.

 

1. Paleo protocol

Is the true ancestral approach that has been designed around how our ancestors used to live in the Palaeolithic Era.

Why? Our ancestors were lean, fit and remarkably free of chronic inflammatory disease. It works off the evolutionary process that for 66,000 generations, humans ate primarily meat, fish, fruits and vegetables, nuts and seeds, and some starchy plants. While being physically active and not sitting for long periods.

For this reason, the Paleo approach aims to emulate our ancestors as much as possible, moving away from processed foods to a wholefoods diet that has more of a balanced split between fat, carbohydrate, and protein.

 

2. Ketogenic protocol (Keto)

The ketogenic protocol is very low-carb, that replaces carbs with high amounts of fat that triggers the body’s natural metabolic process known as “ketosis.” Through restricting carbohydrates, you deprive your body of its natural fuel source, glucose, this forces the body to burn stored fat for fuel instead of glucose. This process promotes your liver to produces “ketones”, a type of fatty acid, and sends them into your bloodstream where your muscles and other tissues can use them as fuel. Ketones are your 4th fuel substrate so fat, protein, carbohydrate, and ketones. It was once believed producing ketones (ketosis) was dangerous as it was thought to be a catabolic state but with the endless amounts of new research, it has been shown to be a preferable source of fuel for humans, offering wide-ranging benefits. One of the quickest ways to achieve a state of Ketosis is fasting, however, it can also occur in the absence of glucose within your diet. External sources such as Exogenous Ketone Supplements have also been shown to greatly speed up this pathway achieving ketosis within 30 mins vs a few days for nutritional ketosis. Exogenous Ketones can be a great aid, especially in the early phases of a ketogenic diet and when looking for optimal performance, I will discuss these in my next article to provide you with a more in-depth understanding.

What does this state of ketosis achieve:

History & Application:

The ketogenic protocol was first coined and used clinically in the 1920s as an alternative therapy for children with epilepsy. However, fasting which also puts you into a ketogenic state is a key component of most, if not all, religions and has been used to treat disease for thousands of years.

Nowadays, people use the keto protocol primarily for:

  • Weight loss
  • Increased Energy & Mood
  • Increased mental clarity & Focus
  • Increased Performance (Mental & Physical)
  • Better Sleep
  • Faster Recovery
  • Longevity

Chronic Health Conditions that might Benefit from Keto:

  • Type 2 Diabetes
  • Cancer (glycolytic driven cancers)
  • Multiple Sclerosis (MS)
  • Epilepsy
  • Metabolic Syndromes
  • Traumatic brain injury (TBI)
  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • Dementia
  • Parkinson’s Disease (PD)
  • Autism spectrum disorder (ASD)  
  • Migraine headaches
  • Gastrointestinal conditions eg. Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
  • Skin conditions eg. acne vulgaris, acne rosacea, eczema, and psoriasis

Conditions that are Contraindications Warrant Caution:

  • Those with genetic conditions that affect fatty acid metabolism, including primary carnitine deficiency, pyruvate carboxylase deficiency, etc.
  • Pregnancy. The exception may be gestational diabetes, but even then a low-carb diet with some whole-food carbohydrates is a safer choice, provided the patient can reach the proper blood sugar targets.
  • People with gallbladder disease, or no gallbladder at all, since they can have trouble digesting fats.
  • People with kidney disease, including a history of kidney stones. Some studies suggest that keto can benefit patients with kidney failure, but patients with other kidney issues may be harmed.
  • People with HPA axis dysfunction and high levels of chronic stress.

(Chris Kresser, 2018)

Can this state be measured?

Yes, there are multiple methods of testing, from breath, blood to urine. As everyone will respond differently it is a great idea, especially early on, to track and quantify what constitutes as being in a state of ketosis. After a while, you will develop the ability to associate the feelings and responses linked with the state.

Although it is a great idea to track, I personally believe too many people begin to fixate on the numbers aiming to achieve deeper states. A higher number does not necessarily mean you are getting any more benefit and chasing the number could be costing you in other areas such as increased stress response. The bottom line, don’t get carried away chasing numbers.

Three methods of testing Ketones:

  1. Urine sticks are an inexpensive method that has been shown to be reliable in the early adaptation phase but once adapted not so reliable. Why? Your body becomes efficient at utilising ketones so you won’t excrete them through urine to the same extent, therefore showing a lower reading than it truly is. You can pick these sticks up from most pharmacies reasonably easily.
  2. Blood is known as the more reliable measure and often offers the ability to test glucose levels as well. The most popular handheld blood testing device is Precision Xtra.
  3. Breath Testing is one off upfront cost. Although it is less accurate than blood, many still prefer it as it is simple to use with no need to take blood. One of the most popular handheld devices is the Ketonix

Give me the Numbers:

The state of Ketosis has been widely debated. Mostly due to individual variance and the fact that is not like a switch, it is a gradual shift. It is now widely accepted and used within literature that 0.5mmol/L and above is defined as being in a ketogenic state. Scientists Jeff Volek and Stephen Phinney, pioneers within the field, described in their book “The Art and Science of Low-Carbohydrate Living“  ‘light nutritional ketosis’ as between 0.5mmol/L and 1.0mmol/L and ‘optimal ketosis’ is between 1.0mmol/L – 3.0mmol/L.”. However, as mentioned, everyone is different so these numbers do not make or break and they should be utilised as guides

 

3. High Fat Low Carbohydrate (HFLC) protocol

This one says it all in the title, it is all about ditching the carbohydrate and replacing with healthy fats. HFLC is very similar to Keto and even some consider them the same. I often find people who think they are leading a keto diet are actually HFLC and there is nothing wrong with this, it just depends on your goals and what works best for you as an individual. The biggest difference is the carbohydrate intake with HFLC you can eat between 50-150 grams where keto is between 20-50 grams. I spent the month of July discussing HFLC and the effects of carbohydrate so I have plenty of information to look further into, for the time being, I will just offer a brief overview. It is basically eating a greater percentage of healthy unprocessed fats, in replacement of all the refined carbohydrates that are consumed in the Western Diet.

The similarities across all three protocols

  • Less Carbohydrates than standard Western Diet (Fat: 20-30%, Protein 10-35% & Carbohydrate 45-60%). To learn more about how we got the history of the food pyramid to check out one of my previous posts Food Pyramid: We Got It Wrong! And to learn more about the effects of excessive carbohydrates I suggest reading this post Let’s Talk Science: High Carbohydrate Vs High Fat
  • Increase in the consumption of whole foods. Reduction if not removal of processed foods

The biggest differences between the three protocols:

It is important to note that some of these factors also apply within each protocol as well and as mentioned above there is a wide number of subgroups within each protocol.

Macronutrients (carbs, proteins, and fats): Macronutrients is the obvious difference across the three protocols.

  • Keto: Fat: 80%, Protein: 15% & Carbohydrate: 5%
  • Paleo: Fat: 28-47%, Protein: 19-35% & Carbohydrate: 22-40%
  • HFLC: More of a lifestyle change so no defined macro breakdown. However, it involves limiting carbs as much as possible, aiming to keep within 50-150 grams per day.

Protein Intake: This is one of the most debated topics and you will see variance not only across paleo to keto but within each protocol itself. Mostly due to the fact that excessive protein can lead to the bodies survival mechanism gluconeogenesis (production of turning protein into carbohydrate). It is believed if you deplete your carbohydrate stores and then replace with large amounts of protein it can lead to this process occurring and even though you are not eating carbs your body is creating them. There is a great academic debate going on at the moment. My current opinion and the opinion of the majority is that protein is not a key concern and it is not something you should restrict, as it is such a key component in maintaining and building tissue within the body, therefore especially important for athletes.

To speak to gluconeogenesis, it is important to remember that this is a highly un-efficient mechanism that is the last resort. Unless you are depleted of all your fat stores, which is near impossible, it is easier for your body to use your fat over going through this taxing process.

Fruit: As Paleo aims to emulate our ancestors, fruits are fine to eat. However, when following a ketogenic protocol and carbohydrates being very restricted, the majority of fruits do not fit within the requirements. For this reason, fruit is often restricted in keto. This is not to say you can not eat fruit if you can keep it within the Marcos (Carbohydrate under 5-8%). Keto individuals will traditionally stay clear of white fruits like banana, apples, pears etc as they produce a high glucose response and possess a greater amount of carbohydrate; for example a banana (Average size: 118 grams) has approximately 27 grams of carbs, this one banana alone exceeds the strictest of definitions of keto. Interestingly the carb count will drop the greener the banana. Instead, ketogenic people will often replace these fruits with vibrant colored and antioxidant-rich fruits like berries. For example; 100 grams of Strawberries is 7.68 grams of carbs.

Vegetables: Many believe these protocols are just bacon and oils, void of any vegetables. That is a whole different diet again, Carnivore diet which is growing popularity at the moment. This is an article in itself but put simply, in my opinion, this is not a sustainable long-term diet.

When it comes to vegetables due to the fiber content in vegetables you would be hard pressed to overeat and kick yourself out of ketosis with spinach, zucchini, lettuce, asparagus and kale on a keto diet. Like anything there are some you need to tread more carefully with eg: Bell Peppers (yellow Specifically), Brussels Sprouts, and beans, these possess great carb count. Myself and many others within Keto, HFLC, and Paleo believe vegetables should be the foundation of the diet due to the richness of micronutrients and antioxidants important for health. Many of which actually aid in digesting and removing harmful oxidative stressors.

Dairy: In the strict Paleo sense, dairy of any form was not consumed in the Palaeolithic Era, other than human milk in the infancy of course. It just wasn’t very practical to milk wild game. Whereas keto and HFLC are all about dairy, that is if you can handle it.

 

Reference:

Allen, B. G., Bhatia, S. K., Anderson, C. M., Eichenberger-Gilmore, J. M., Sibenaller, Z. A., Mapuskar, K. A., … Fath, M. A. (2014). Ketogenic diets as an adjuvant cancer therapy: History and potential mechanism. Redox Biology, 2(1), 963–970. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.redox.2014.08.002

Dashti, H. M., Mathew, T. C., Hussein, T., Asfar, S. K., Behbahani, A., Khoursheed, M. A., … Al-Zaid, N. S. (2004). Long-term effects of a ketogenic diet in obese patients. Experimental and Clinical Cardiology, 9(3), 200–205. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8050289

Deng-Bryant, Y., Prins, M. L., Hovda, D. A., & Harris, N. G. (2011). Ketogenic diet prevents alterations in brain metabolism in young but not adult rats after traumatic brain injury. Journal of Neurotrauma, 28(9), 1813–1825. https://doi.org/10.1089/neu.2011.1822

Di Lorenzo, C., Curra, A., Sirianni, G., Coppola, G., Bracaglia, M., Cardillo, A., … Pierelli, F. (2013). Diet transiently improves migraine in two twin sisters: possible role of ketogenesis? Functional Neurology, 28(4), 305–308.

Evangeliou, A., Vlachonikolis, I., Mihailidou, H., Spilioti, M., Skarpalezou, A., Makaronas, N., … Smeitink, J. (2003). Application of a ketogenic diet in children with autistic behavior: pilot study. Journal of Child Neurology, 18(2), 113–118. https://doi.org/10.1177/08830738030180020501

Gasior, M., Rogawski, M. A., & Hartman, A. L. (2006). Neuroprotective and disease-modifying effects of the ketogenic diet. Behavioural Pharmacology, 17(5–6), 431–439. https://doi.org/10.1097/00008877-200609000-00009

Herbert, M. R., & Buckley, J. A. (2013). Autism and dietary therapy: case report and review of the literature. Journal of Child Neurology, 28(8), 975–982. https://doi.org/10.1177/0883073813488668

Hu, Z.-G., Wang, H.-D., Qiao, L., Yan, W., Tan, Q.-F., & Yin, H.-X. (2009). The protective effect of the ketogenic diet on traumatic brain injury-induced cell death in juvenile rats. Brain Injury, 23(5), 459–465. https://doi.org/10.1080/02699050902788469

Mychasiuk, R., & Rho, J. M. (2017). Genetic modifications associated with ketogenic diet treatment in the BTBR(T+Tf/J) mouse model of autism spectrum disorder. Autism Research : Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research, 10(3), 456–471. https://doi.org/10.1002/aur.1682

Paoli, A., Bianco, A., Damiani, E., & Bosco, G. (2014). Ketogenic diet in neuromuscular and neurodegenerative diseases. BioMed Research International, 2014(2). https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/474296

Prins, M. L., & Matsumoto, J. H. (2014). The collective therapeutic potential of cerebral ketone metabolism in traumatic brain injury. Journal of Lipid Research, 55(12), 2450–2457. https://doi.org/10.1194/jlr.R046706

Remahl, S., Dahlin, M. G., & Amark, P. E. (2008). Influence of the ketogenic diet on 24-hour electroencephalogram in children with  epilepsy. Pediatric Neurology, 38(1), 38–43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2007.09.002

Schmidt, M., Pfetzer, N., Schwab, M., Strauss, I., & Kämmerer, U. (2011). Effects of a ketogenic diet on the quality of life in 16 patients with advanced cancer: A pilot trial. Nutrition & Metabolism, 8(1), 54. https://doi.org/10.1186/1743-7075-8-54

Stafstrom, C. E., & Rho, J. M. (2012). The ketogenic diet as a treatment paradigm for diverse neurological disorders. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 3 APR(April), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2012.00059

Storoni, M., & Plant, G. T. (2015). The Therapeutic Potential of the Ketogenic Diet in Treating Progressive Multiple Sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis International, 2015, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/681289

Volek, J. S., Phinney, S. D., Forsythe, C. E., Quann, E. E., Wood, R. J., Puglisi, M. J., … Feinman, R. D. (2009). Carbohydrate restriction has a more favorable impact on the metabolic syndrome than a low fat diet. Lipids, 44(4), 297–309. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11745-008-3274-2